Diabetes Insipidus signs and symptoms are characterized by extreme versions of a few very common Diabetes Mellitus symptoms. These include:
- Extreme and often excessive thirst for cold water and sometimes even ice water
- Excessive urination due to extreme consumption of water
The symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus mimic those of Diabetes Mellitus however one main distinction is that the urine will not contain excess glucose and hyperglycemia or, high blood sugar, will not be evident. Signs of dehydration are often the best indicator as sufferers of this disease are often unable to conserve any amount of water in large quantities.
As a result of the extreme loss of liquids, Diabetes Insipidus can interfere with ones daily life. Constantly going to the bathroom can affect ones work life, appetite, and sometimes can affect growth in children. Depletion of electrolytes is also of large concern and is another excellent symptom of Diabetes Insipidus to watch for.
The diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus is both qualitative and quantitative involving both the documentation of the above listed symptoms as well as hormone-level testing to determine the type (if any) of DI in each case.
Types of Diabetes Insipidus
Neurogenic or central Diabetes Insipidus: This type of DI is caused by a lack of AVP or arginine vasopressin production in the brain. AVP is a hormone that controls retention of water in the body.
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: This type of DI is caused by an insensitivity of ones kidneys to AVP. The kidneys do not respond properly to this antidiuretic hormone causing water loss.
Dipsogenic DI: This type of DI is caused by a defect or injury in the thirst mechanism located in the hypothalamus gland in the brain. This causes an increase in thirst and fluid intake that causes a suppression of AVP production and increases urine output.
Gestational DI: This DI type only occurs during pregnancy. Pregnant women produce an enzyme called vasopressinase. This enzyme breaks down AVP. It is thought that Gestational DI is a result of an overproduction of vasopressinase.
Just like other types of Diabetes, if you discover that you exhibit several of the symptoms listed above, see your doctor immediately. Check out our FAQ for common questions and answers concerning Diabetes or our articles section for other Diabetes articles.